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Archaeology Applications

Rock engravings          Rock engravings drawings

1 - Rock Engravings made by First Nations People in Alberta, Canada. Photogrammetry is a non-contact recording process ideal for documenting fragile objects and sites such as petroglyphs, pictographs and other artifacts. Difficult access or weather conditions have little impact on photogrammetric surveys. Time consuming tasks such as measuring and drawing by hand are eliminated. Measurements, drawings, 3-D computer models and details can be produced at a later date without delaying site investigation or excavation. Other advantages.

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Historical Archaeological Research

2 - Santo Antonio de Ratones Fortress, Santa Catarina Island, Brazil. Especially at excavations, features from upper layers have to be destroyed when digging down to the lower layers. If the documentation turns out to be insufficient or incorrect, the information is irretrievably lost. 

However, if the features were photogrammetrically recorded (metric photographs only - for example), the documentation can be verified, corrected, and finalized at any later time. This is extremely desirable when the results have to be also analyzed by someone who did not participate in the excavation. Experience shows that with conventional recording, often different technicians have drawn the excavated features. This may result in different and non-homogeneous drawings with no possibility for corrections. Other advantages.

Historical Stone Floor            Photogrammetric recording and drawings

3 - The house (pavement) at Ageristrasse 7, Zug, Switzerland. Used to be an armory in which cannons were stored. The quality of conventional recordings very often depends on the qualification, interest and ability of the documenting archaeologist. The photogrammetric recording is objective. Everything is recorded in the photographs, nothing is overlooked. 

In rescue and salvage work, layers of stones, for example, can be extremely painstaking and time consuming to document. Photogrammetry can dramatically accelerate the recording procedure, with analysis done subsequently at a later time. Other advantages

Portuguese Fortress - ICOMOS Monument

4 - Ilha do Mel Island Fortress, South of Brazil. Constructed by the Portuguese circa 1700. In addition to a precise survey, digital photogrammetry also provides a profuse and high-quality photographic documentation, adding color reference and texture information. 

In this way, a large number of objects or sites can be thoroughly documented in a short time and at a very low cost. Dimensional information and photographic analysis can be carried out later. Other advantages

Arion and the Dolphin, before decay           A damaged Arion and the Dolphin statue being recorded

5 - "Arion and the Dolphin" statue at Schwetzingen Castle Gardens, Germany. Material deformation analysis and execution of 1:1 scaled drawings for reconstruction were produced with the photogrammetric survey. A digital (CAD) 3D model could then be produced to assist in the reconstruction. Other advantages

Pompeii           Interior house documentation in Pompeii

6 - Pompeii Archaeological Area, Italy. Frescoes and architectural details were surveyed with this technique. All features can be drawn and mapped in 2D and 3D. Furthermore, since all information is already in digital format (CAD), it can be easily and readily used for print and web publication, allowing for computer rendering and animation for evolution of site/time reconstruction. Other advantages

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Historical Artwork

7 - St. Michael Church, Niederrotweil, Germany. The non-contact survey is ideal for recording faint paintings and engravings. Furthermore, through photogrammetry, a Digital Orthophoto, or distortion-free and true-to-scale photograph, can be produced. Other advantages

A hull line's drawings obtained through photogrammetry
A hull line's drawings: photogrammetry

8 - Underwater survey of an ancient shipwreck in the Mediterranean. AutoCAD drawings were produced as well as 3D information of the hull lines. Close-range photogrammetry provides dramatic reduction in time spent recording archaeological sites. Other advantages

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